中国修复重建外科杂志

中国修复重建外科杂志

膝关节骨关节炎的保膝治疗进展

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目的 基于遵循阶梯性治疗理念,对膝关节骨关节炎(knee osteoarthritis,KOA)保膝治疗进展作一综述。 方法 查阅近年国内外相关文献,对 KOA 各阶段治疗方法进行总结分析。 结果 KOA 的治疗旨在减轻症状、延缓关节结构性改变、维持关节功能和提高生活质量,因此保守治疗仍是早期 KOA 的首选治疗方法。关节镜手术可协助诊断和分级,并同期行关节内刺激物清理和软骨的有限修复。截骨术适用于下肢负重力线、关节线异常的 KOA,能有效平衡膝关节负重应力,改善症状,缓解疾病进展。关节牵伸术治疗 KOA 能改善膝关节力学环境,一定程度修复缺损软骨,缓解症状。随着技术进步,近年来单髁关节置换(unicompartmental knee arthroplasty,UKA)重新兴起,UKA 属于真正的关节表面置换,是前内侧 KOA 患者保膝治疗的重要手段。 结论 目前 KOA 保膝治疗方法较多,主要针对患者病程以及病情严重程度进行选择。截骨术和 UKA 是临床应用最多且保膝成功率高的重要外科技术,但应注意恰当选择适应证,术者需积累足够临床经验,以取得良好效果。

Objective To review the progress of knee-salvage treatment based on the step therapy idea for knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Methods The domestic and foreign literature in recent years was searched, and the treatments of KOA at different stages were summarized and analyzed. Results The treatment of KOA is aimed at alleviating symptoms, delaying structural changes of joints, maintaining joint function, and improving quality of life. So the conservative treatment is still the first choice for KOA at early stage. Arthroscopic surgery can assist in the diagnosis and classification, simultaneously remove the intra-articular irritants, and limitedly repair the cartilage. Osteotomy is suitable for the KOA with abnormal lower extremity weight bearing line and articular line. And it can effectively balance the weight bearing stress of knee joint, improve the clinical symptom, and alleviate the progression of disease. Joint distraction can improve the mechanical environment of knee joint and repair the defect cartilage partly. With the technical development, unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) is back in fashion in recent years. It is a kind of real joint surface replacement, which is an important means of knee preservation method in patients with anterior medial KOA. Conclusion At present, there are many knee-salvage treatments based on the severity of the disease. Osteotomy and UKA are the most widely used and successful surgical techniques for knee preservation. However, the indications should be properly selected, and the surgeon should accumulate enough clinical experience. Otherwise, it is difficult to achieve good results.

关键词: 膝关节; 骨关节炎; 保膝治疗; 研究进展

Key words: Knee joint; osteoarthritis; knee-salvage treatment; research progress

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