中国修复重建外科杂志

中国修复重建外科杂志

颈椎前路椎间盘切除减压不同融合节段对脊柱-骨盆矢状位平衡的影响

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目的 探讨颈椎前路椎间盘切除减压椎间融合术(anterior cervical discectomy and fusion,ACDF)术中融合节段数量对脊柱-骨盆矢状位平衡的影响。 方法 回顾分析 2010 年 1 月—2016 年 12 月 326 例因脊髓型颈椎病接受 ACDF 患者的临床资料。男 175 例,女 151 例;年龄 34~81 岁,平均 56 岁。融合节段:单节段 69 例,双节段 85 例,三节段 90 例,四节段 82 例。患者术前及术后 12 个月行脊柱全长正侧位 X 线片检查,测量并比较脊柱-骨盆矢状位参数:C0~2 Cobb 角、C2~7 Cobb 角、C2~7 矢状垂直距离(C2–7 sagittal vertical axis,C2–7 SVA)、T1 倾斜角(T1 slope,T1S)、胸廓入口角(thoracic inlet angle,TIA)、胸椎后凸角(thoracic kyphosis,TK)、腰椎前凸角(lumbar lordosis,LL)、骨盆入射角(pelvic incidence,PI)、骶骨倾斜角(sacral slope,SS)、C7 矢状位平衡(C7 sagittal vertical axis,C7 SVA)、T1 骨盆角(T1 pelvic angle,TPA)。比较术前及术后 12 个月颈椎日本骨科协会(JOA)评分、颈椎及上肢疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)。对手术前后 LL、PI、SS、C7 SVA 及 TPA 进行 Pearson 相关性分析,评估 ACDF 术后下腰段脊柱-骨盆拟合关系变化。 结果 326 例患者术后均获随访,随访时间 12~32 个月,平均 18.5 个月。随访期间内固定物在位,无脊髓神经及周围软组织损伤。术后 12 个月 JOA 及颈椎 VAS 评分均较术前显著改善(P<0.05),双上肢 VAS 评分与术前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。4 组间术前颈椎 VAS 评分及术后 12 个月 JOA 评分比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。术后 12 个月,单节段融合组各脊柱-骨盆矢状位参数与术前比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05)。双节段、三节段及四节段融合组 C0~2 Cobb 角、C2~7 Cobb 角、C2–7 SVA、T1S、TIA、C7 SVA 及 TPA 均较术前显著增加(P<0.05)。4 组间比较术前及术后 12 个月 C0~2 Cobb 角、C2~7 Cobb 角、T1S、C7 SVA 及 TPA 差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。术后 12 个月双节段、三节段、四节段融合组的 C7 SVA 及 TPA 改变量均显著大于单节段融合组(P<0.05);双节段、三节段、四节段组间比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。手术前后各组 PI 与 LL、SS 均成正相关(P<0.05)。 结论 脊髓型颈椎病患者具有生理状态下腰椎与骨盆正常拟合关系,而且 ACDF 不能改变这一特定关系;单节段融合后脊柱-骨盆矢状位序列无变化,而双节段及多节段融合后脊柱-骨盆矢状位平衡改变。

Objective To explore the effect on sagittal spine-pelvis balance of different fusion segments in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF). Methods The clinical data of 326 patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, treated by ACDF between January 2010 and December 2016, were retrospectively analysed. There were 175 males and 151 females with an average age of 56 years (range, 34-81 years). Fusion segments included single segment in 69 cases, double segments in 85 cases, three segments in 90 cases, and four segments in 82 cases. Full spine anterolateral X-ray films were performed before operationand at 12 months after operation. The spine-pelvis parameters of fusion segments were measured and compared. The parameters included C0–2 Cobb angle, C2–7 Cobb angle, C2–7 sagittal vertical axis (C2–7 SVA), T1 slope (T1S), thoracic inlet angle (TIA), thoracic kyphosis (TK), lumbar lordosis (LL), pelvic incidence (PI), sacral slope (SS), C7 sagittal vertical axis (C7 SVA), T1 pelvic angle (TPA). The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score of cervical spine and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores of pain of cervical spine and upper extremity were compared before operation and at 12 months after operation. Pearson correlation analysis was performed on LL, PI, SS, C7 SVA, and TPA before and after operation to evaluate the changes of spine-pelvis fitting relationship after ACDF. Results All 326 patients were followed up 12-32 months (mean, 18.5 months). During the follow-up period, internal fixator was in place, and no spinal cord nerve or peripheral soft tissue injury was found. JOA scores and cervical VAS scores were significantly improved at 12 months after operation (P<0.05), no significant difference was found in VAS scores of upper extremity compared with preoperative scores (P>0.05). The preoperative cervical VAS scores and the postoperative JOA scores at 12 months had significant differences between groups (P<0.05). At 12 months after operation, there was no significant difference in sagittal spine-pelvis parameters in the single segment group compared with preoperative ones (P>0.05); but the C0–2 Cobb angle, C2–7 Cobb angle, C2–7 SVA, T1S, TIA, C7 SVA, and TPA in the double segments, three segments, four segments groups were significant larger than preoperative ones (P<0.05). The C0–2 Cobb angle, C2–7 Cobb angle, T1S, C7 SVA, and TPA among 4 groups had significant differences before operation and at 12 months after operation (P<0.05). At 12 months after operation, the changes of C7 SVA and TPA in the double segments, three segments, and four segments groups were significantly larger than those in the single segment group (P>0.05). PI had positive correlations with LL and SS before and after ACDF in 4 groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Normal fitting relationship between lumbar spine and pelvis in physiological state also exists in patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, and ACDF can not change this specific relationship. In patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy, the sagittal spine-pelvis sequence unchanged after ACDF single-level fusion, while the sagittal spine-pelvis balance changed after double-level and multi-level fusion.

关键词: 颈椎前路椎间盘切除减压椎间融合术; 融合节段; 脊柱-骨盆参数; 矢状位平衡

Key words: Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion; fusion segment; spine-pelvis parameter; sagittal balance

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